by Victoria S. – Approved on 5 October, 2015

1. Define ritual, especially as the term applies to religious and spiritual work. (minimum 200 words)

In her book, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Catherine Bell reviews the different approaches to the study or ritual. There are a number of different approaches to the study of ritual, with different understanding in how to define ritual acts as rituals. Even with these differing opinions, Bell postulates that most agree that ritual is “a type of critical juncture wherein some pair of opposing social or cultural forces comes together” (16). Durkheim theorized that ritual is a way to re-integrate the thought-action dichotomy where our mental process are tied to our actions, helping us to enact our beliefs.  V. Turner, however, believes that ritual promotes the sense of community and helps to ensure that the community has the same goals and beliefs (Bell 19).

In the case of ADF ritual, our rituals have community, spiritual and religious meaning. Our rituals work to re-integrate the spiritual and religious components into our normal lives as well as to build our sense of community and common goals.

In Ian Corrigan’s article on the Intention of Druidic Rituals, he discusses the different intentions of ritual including “to rectify and empower the souls of the worshippers”, “to serve the God/desses and Spirits:” and “to bless the folk and the land”. In addition, Arnold Brooks’ article he talks about the intentions of “enter into a relationship with supernatural forces”, “spiritual fulfillment”, “receive or ask for a blessing”, “build group unity and a sense of community”, “improve the status of the ritual writer and the clergy performing the ritual”, “clarify a belief or practice”, for training, or in rare cases, to reduce the status of a member (“The Goals of Group Ritual”).

There is a fair amount of crossover between these two views. Corrigan’s first reason talks about bringing ourselves into alignment with the gods as well as to ourselves. Brooks also talks about bringing the worshipers into relationship with supernatural forces (or the Kindred, to give them another name) as well as finding spiritual fulfillment. We can also view this group of purposes as including activities that bring ourselves to alignment with our own inner worlds and thereby align us closer to our true selves. Our inner worlds, our inner being, are as important as the world we live in and the worlds of the Kindred. By spending time and focus in ritual to understand the symbols of our inner worlds, and understand our true desires; we can find ways to bring our lives into alignment with our true desires, and thus become happier, more productive, people.

Corrigan also speaks of service to the Kindred is the second reason for worship. This service is both in offerings for general worship as well as rituals specifically designed to accomplish a task for the Kindred or to receive a blessing from the Kindred. In this type of ritual, we can include Brooks’ purposes of asking and receiving blessings, as well as building group unity. Most of the High Day public ADF rites fall in this category. These rituals can be big, involved, affairs, or small daily rituals. Smaller, personal rituals may be focused on performing offerings or other service to the Kindred, but in most cases, we are also asking for blessings in return.

The final reason discussed by Corrigan is working with the land, and it’s inhabitants. These are rituals that are designed to heal the land, as well as it’s peoples. Rituals for the land include works to improve the climates, clean the waters and the land, heal people, or generally assist the folk – humans and Nature Spirits. Brooks’ purposes of building community as well as entering into a relationship with the Kindred can be included in these types of rituals.

Per Brooks’, rituals may also have goals that are more focused on the mundane. Rituals can be created for training, for showing that the ritual practitioners and clergy can demonstrate the ability to perform rituals well. In rare cases, rituals may also be performed to reduce a person’s status, usually to allow other, less practiced, individuals to have a chance to shine.

Most public rituals have a combination of these purposes. Public rituals generally will have a primary purpose, and one or more secondary purposes. Private rituals may have as few as one goal, but  often also have multiple goals.

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2. Describe some of the roles individuals might take on within the context of ritual. (minimum 100 words)

There are a number of different roles that an individual can play in an ADF ritual. In most rituals that I’ve seen, there are at least three members who act as ritual leaders. They play the role of priest, bard and seer. While it is not required that the person filling the role of priest is an ordained priest, they are expected to be the ritual expert at the time. It is the priest’s role to ensure that the ritual is well coordinated, that the energies are flowing and that the ritual is as powerful as it can be. The bard is the person who works with the chants and songs. In rituals that I have attended, the bard is also often the person who leads the responses. The third usual role is the seer. This person takes and interprets the omen.

In addition to these three roles, I’ve also seen people given specific roles for giving offerings, or opening the gates. The person in charge of offerings works with the Priest and actually presents the offerings to the fire, tree and well as appropriate. If a specific individual is in charge of opening the gates, he or she may also assist the Priest to ensure the smooth flow of energy through the rite. Some rites will also have individual people to call each of the Kindred.

For larger group rituals, it’s useful to encourage participation by a larger number of people. However the more people that are involved, the stronger the need for practice. In smaller rites, it’s possible to have one person play multiple roles. In fact, for solitary rites, the only participant acts in all the roles.

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3. Discuss why ADF rituals need not have a defined outer boundary, or “circle” and explain the ADF’s method of sacralizing space. (minimum 100 words)

ADF rituals are often public rituals that are held in public or semi-public locations and it can be difficult for rituals with defined outer boundaries in these situations. People may wander into and out of the ritual space as they are attracted to the ritual. The lack of a defined outer boundary also makes it much easier for longer rituals or rituals with small children or individuals with specific needs. It’s simple to step away from the group to address bored or fussy children and any special needs that may disrupt the ceremony. Our warriors are also often called to assist in the transition of individuals into, and out of, the ritual space, but there is no need to cut doors or otherwise interrupt the flow of the ritual.

It is convenient that the structure of an ADF ritual does not require a defined outer boundary. We have no watchtowers or directional guardians that are called, nor a need to contain energy. Our sacred space is defined and held by the Sacred Center and the Gatekeeper. By (re)creating the cosmos and defining the Center of the ritual, and of the world. Once the Center is defined and the cosmos is (re)created, we open the gates between this world and the Other Worlds. Thus, we define the ritual space and make it sacred.  During the ritual the energy that we raise is built around the Center and directed through the Gates in the Center as needed. Energy from the Kindred also returns to us the same way.

As Isaac Bonewits mentions in his “Step by Step” article on the ADF site, there’s no need to form a formal circle to guard against negative outside forces as “no ‘demon’ or other evil spirit would dare to invade a sacred grove.” So if one did, the Gatekeeper assists us by guarding against such an invasion.

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4. Discuss the Earth Mother and her significance in ADF liturgy. (minimum 100 words)

The phrase Earth Mother may refer to the planetary spirit, or Gaia, or to a specific goddess of the land. Exactly how the Earth Mother is worshiped is up to the individual druids and groves. Personally, the Earth Mother for me is the planetary spirit of this ball of elements with which we exist (Newberg).

The Earth Mother is a term that we use to refer to the Earth the planet, as well as the spirit that sustains the planet. The Earth is that which supports our existence. At the beginning of the ADF rituals, we honor the Earth Mother to honor that spirit. This honoring also reminds us that we should live in harmony with the Earth as, without the Earth, we would not exist. According to the CooR tutorial, the Earth Mother originated with the RNDA rituals (Newberg). The practice continues through to today’s ADF rituals.

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5. Discuss how the Fire, Well and Tree became parts of ADF’s sacred center, and the significance of each in ADF ritual. (minimum 100 words for each of the Fire, Well and Tree)

“The Fire, the Well, the Sacred Tree

Flow and Flame and Grow in me”

 These words are found in the Druidic Mystical Practice series by Ian Corrigan. The three gates that Corrigan describes are the three main gates that we use in ADF rituals.

Fire has long been associated with the Gods. From the time that Prometheus brought fire down from Mount Olympus to give to humans, the fire has symbolized the sacred fires that carry our offerings to the gods. As the ancients burned fat, incense and other offerings to the gods, the smoke of the sacred fires carried those offerings up to the gods (Newberg, “CooR Tutorial: Step Six”). In nature, fire can encourage new growth by burning away the detritus of old growth. In the same way, fire is also the purifier, that which burns away the impurities and leaves the pure essence of the sacrifice. Today, the fire acts both as a symbol of the gods, as well as a way to purify and consume our sacrifices.

The Well speaks to a number of different sources of mythological and spiritual water. There is the underground river Styx that separates the world of the living from the world of the dead. There are also the triple Norse Wells of Hvergelmir, the Well of the Weird, and the Well of Mimir. The Well of Hvergelmir feeds the roots of the World Tree. The Well of the Weird is the home of the Norns, who keep the forces of destiny in motion. The third well, the Well of Mimir is where all knowledge, wisdom and power are kept. In today’s ADF liturgy, the Well represents the underworld (Demissy). The waters of the well reach deep into the Earth, to the land of our ancestors, to where we may draw up the wisdom, knowledge and power of those who have gone before.

The Tree in ADF liturgy connects the primal fire with the primal water (Demissy). The basic thought of the tree as we use it in ADF is similar to the Norse World Tree, Yggdrasil. In Norse Mythology, Yggdrasil connects the nine worlds together. It is fed by the waters of the three Wells and serves as a pathway between the different worlds. In addition to Yggdrisil, many shamanic practices use the World Tree as a pathway from this world to the Upper and Lower worlds. Because it is a tree, “The Tree” also stands as a link to the natural world, and connects us to the spirits and fae who live here.

Together, the Fire, Well and Tree form the sacred Center of the ADF Cosmology as used in our rituals.

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6. Describe three culturally specific models for (re)creating the cosmos consistent with the Core Order of Ritual. (minimum 100 words for each model)

ADF ritual allows us to adapt our rituals for different cultures. Different groups have different methods of (re)creating the cosmos.  Some will describe the origin of the world, others will describe the world as it is today.

Norse and Northern-oriented rituals can (re)create the universe by invoking the nine worlds and connecting them through the World Tree.  From between the worlds of Muspelheim and Niflheim, the elemental fire and Ice, came the Giant Ymir, and from his body, the gods created Midgard. There are 6 other worlds as well.  These nine worlds are associated with the Upper, Middle and Lower worlds of the ADF cosmos. Vanaheim, Asgard, and Alfheim are linked to the Upper worlds. Svartalfheim, Jotunheim and Midguard are the Midworld, and Nilfheim, Muspelheim and Helheim are linked to the lower world.  These worlds are all linked together through the World Tree, Yggdrasil. There are three wells at the base of Yggdrasil that can be used to symbolize the Well component of the Sacred Center.  Yggdrasil binds the worlds together and stands as the Tree component.  The sacred fire itself symbolizes the fire of the gods.

For Greek-oriented rituals, we can (re)create the cosmos by describing the Upper, Middle and Lower worlds with locations from Greek myth.  Olympus, the home of the gods, corresponds to the Upper World, Our own world is the Middle world, and Hades is the Lower world (Newberg, “COoR Tutorial:Step Five”). Once the worlds have been summoned, we can connect them through the Hallows. Zeus defined the center of the world by sending out two eagles to fly around in opposite directions to Omphalos, the center of the world.  The Omphalos can represent the Tree – connecting the Upper and Lower worlds. The rivers that run through Hades connect us to the Well, the sacrificial fire connects us to the fire of the gods.

Irish rituals utilize the concept of Land, Sea and Sky instead of the Upper, Middle and Lower Worlds.  When defining the Center, Irish practitioners can use references to Uisneach, known as the Center of Ireland, and believed to be the home of the Tuatha De Dannan and the mortal burial site of Lugh (“History of the Hill of Uisneach”). Connla’s Well is situated at Uisneach and is historically considered to be the source of the major rivers in Irealand.  This well can be used as the Well for defining the Center of the Universe.  The ancient fires lit at the hill of Uisneach symbolize the fire of the gods, and there is a legend of an ancient ash that grew on Uisneach and connected the people to the land (Eremon).

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7. Describe the concepts of 1) the Center and 2) the Gates in ADF’s Core Order of Ritual, including two cultural variations of each concept. (minimum 300 words)

The Center and the gates orient us in space and time, as well as allowing an easy path for the Kindred to join us. In my understanding, as we create the center by opening the gates of Fire, Well and Tree, we are creating a center of energy that attracts the focus of the participants and through which the Kindred’s energy may flow. The gate of the Well connects us to the worlds of the underworld and of our ancestors. The gate of the Fire connects us to the worlds of the Gods, the Shining Ones. The gate of the Tree ties the other two gates together, connecting them in our world, and connects the gates to the Noble Ones, the Nature Spirits.

In “Neopagan Rites”, Isaac Bonewits states that “When you declare the presence of a ritual center in your ceremony, you are reinforcing the concept of sacred time (by harking back to when the world was created at this spot), as well as stating that you now have the ability to communicate with other worlds” (Kindle Loc 437). The center then, in addition to being a focus for the participants, is a doorway to the Other worlds and to the unseen. It is a conduit of energy between this world and the next.

Once we have established the center and, effectively, created the doorway through which the Kindred may come, we need to open the door. Because the doorway is just that … a doorway, we need to have someone who will stand at the door and make sure that only the Kindred who would wish to aid in the rite come through the conduit. To accomplish this, we call upon a Gatekeeper. The Gatekeeper is a being who is partially in this world and partially in the other worlds, one who often assists humans and who is willing to assist us in the ritual by guarding the door.

Because the Center is a conduit of energy, we can utilize it for more than just the giving and receiving of blessings. In “Neopagan Rites”, Isaac Bonewits also addresses interesting application of defining a Center at the target of the rite, and connecting the Center of the ritual to the Center of the target (Kindle Loc 1656). This second center could be created either through having an object or crystal at the target and use a similar object or crystal on the altar to focus the working, or by utilizing the magical Law of Similarity.

For ADF rites, creating the center and opening the gates is our way of shifting the awareness of the participants as well as inviting the Kindred to our rite. With the invitation of the gatekeeper, we also establish a “boundary” between this world and the other worlds, to protect and guard the space.

Because of the flexibility of ADF rites, we can adapt how we present these gates to the specific Hearth Culture of the ritual.  For example, for Hellenic rituals, we can use the idea of the Sacrificial Pit that is used to make offerings to the Ancestors as the gate to the underworld. The gate of the Fire represents the sacred fires of offerings, and the Tree can be symbolized with a mountain, as Olympus connects this world to the world of the gods. In Norse rites, we can use Mimir’s Well – situated in the roots of the World Tree – as the gate to the Ancestors. The fires of sacrifice represent the gate of Fire, and the World Tree itself, Yggdrasill, is the gate of the Tree – to connect the worlds together (“The Druids Cosmos”).

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8. Discuss the ritual depiction of the relationship between Fire and Water in ADF liturgy. (minimum 100 words)

Fire and water are common themes in ADF liturgy. Water ties us to our ancestors, their deep wisdom, and the primal energies of the life and death. Water can also be considered to represent the primordial chaos from which the world was formed. Fire ties us to the gods by making our offerings sacred and representing the light of the gods.  It evokes the primal fire, the energies of life, but it can also represent destruction. Fire can also represent the primordial order that shaped the chaos to form the world.

While performing the Two Powers, we bring together the waters of chaos and the fires of order in ourselves.  These two different energies blend to (re)create the cosmos within us. In many Indo-European creation myths, order and chaos are brought together to create life.

“Through Fire and Water, I find my Balance.”  These words are spoken at the beginning of many of my rituals.  With this phrase, I remind myself that we need both order and chaos to find balance.  Only when these two are balanced can we achieve true harmony with the Kindreds.

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9. Discuss the Outdwellers and their significance in ritual (or not, as the case may be). (minimum 100 words)

A while ago, there was a conversation on the ADF-Liturgists mailing list about this specific topic, and it made me think. Outsiders, or Outdwellers, are generally considered a group of spirits who may be disruptive to the ritual or the workings within it. Ceisiwr Serith mentioned “The Outsiders are those with whom a friendly relationship is not possible, not those with whom we do not yet have such a relationship.” Other people, in the same thread, believe that there is always the possibility of a relationship with the Outdwellers.

Outdwellers can be viewed as beings outside of ourselves, or as negative or distracting emotions, or other aspects of ourselves that will work against us for the rite. However we view the Outdwellers, they are beings or emotions that we do not want to be part of the ritual.

Personally, I choose not to acknowledge the Outdwellers in my rituals. I recognize that they are there, but I do not make offerings to them or otherwise acknowledge them.

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10. Describe the intention and function of Inviting the Three Kindreds.
(minimum 100 words)

According to Bonewits (“Step by Step”) the invocations of the Kindred are to invoke the members of the three Kindred as well as to help focus the group mind. As we invoke each different Kindred, the group focus gets stronger and more powerful. As a result, we will often invoke the most powerful of the Kindred, the Shining Ones, at the end of the invocations.

In our group, we begin with invoking the Nature Spirits, the creatures of the Earth on which we live and spirits of the Land Nature Spirits can be the spirits of the land where the ritual is taking place, or spirits of a nearby stream, or any other natural spirit that the ritual participants choose to honor. Animal and plant spirits are included in this grouping, as are most other spirits that do not fit into another group. The Nature Spirits are also called the Noble Ones and are accepted to be spirits of non-human, non-divine origin (Corrigan, “The Worlds and the Kindred”). These are spirits of the Fae, animals, plants and of the land. In addition to spirits of growing things, there can be spirits of places, including homes, cities and other urban environments. It is worthwhile to contact the local Nature Spirits prior to performing a ritual to ensure that you won’t interrupt them unnecessarily.

Next we call upon our Ancestors and Honored Dead. These are beings that are considered Ancestors of blood, heart or spirit. Our Ancestors are those who have come before us and, in some way, touched out lives. We can, if we look far enough, trace our ancestors all the way back to the first mother and father. In that way, we are all related. When we call upon our Ancestors, we are not just calling on those who share our bloodline, but also the Honored Dead. Those who came before us and have helped us to get to where we are – directly or indirectly are counted among our Honored Dead. In my own practice, I count individuals such as Tesla and Newton among my Honored Dead although there is no indication that we are related other than through the fact that we are both humans. We assume that our Honored Dead are willing to assist us in our work. In many cases they are, and even if they aren’t they usually have some wisdom to share with us.

The third group of Kindred that we call is the Shining Ones, the Gods and Goddesses. This is the group of Kindred that includes Zeus, Cerridwen, Thor, and many more gods and goddesses. How each individual views these Shining Ones is up to them, but we behave as if they are independent beings, capable of their own thought, as this is how we believed the Ancient Indo-Europeans observed them (Corrigan, “Core Ideas”). Each of the Shining Ones have their own will and agenda, and it is up to the Druid to work with Them to understand what They can help with, and what is required in return. While the Shining Ones seem to have some motivation to help us within their areas of influence, it is always advisable to use divination to establish that the help will be delivered.

I have outlined all of these Kindred as separate groups, however there is some flexibility and fluidity between the boundaries of the groups. Heroes become Gods, and in some cases Gods are limited to specific regions and areas and become closer to Nature Spirits. No matter which group you assign to a specific Being, it is always good to form a relationship with them, even if it’s only a casual relationship, to ensure the most effective workings.

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11. Discuss how one would choose the focus (or foci) for the Key Offerings (which may include: Beings of the Occasion, seasonal theme or other focus of the work).(minimum 100 words)

The focus for the Key Offerings depends upon the focus of the ritual.  If you are designing a ritual that is focused on the Nature Spirits or the Ancestors, then They should be the focus for the Key Offering.  If the focus for the ritual is a theme – an example would be unity – then specific Kindred should be selected who represents that theme.  The focus for the Key Offering could also be the Being of the Occasion, a specific named member of any of the Kindred. If multiple Beings of the Occasion are called, then they should all be included in the Key Offering. The focus for the Key Offering should always mirror the theme and focus for the ritual. 

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12. Discuss your understanding of Sacrifice, and its place in ADF ritual.
 (minimum 100 words)

The word “Sacrifice” means “to make sacred.” Looking at the Proto-Indo-European language, it is possible that “Sacrifice” means “to make something set apart from ordinary reality” (Thomas, “The Nature of Sacrifice”). In ADF liturgy, we use Sacrifices to bring us closer to the Kindred.

For me, a Sacrifice can have two different purposes in ADF liturgy. The first purpose is the “shared meal” purpose. This is the sacrifice where a part of the food is shared with the Kindred while the rest of it is shared with the celebrants and populous. As Serith says, it is “a sacred barbecue” in which we share a meal with the Gods. The other purpose for sacrifice evokes a *ghosti-relationship between ourselves and the Kindred. In a *gnosti- type of relationship, we are both guest and host at the same time. We are host to the Kindred as we give them a gift, and then we are guest to the Kindred as we receive their gifts in return (Serith, “Sacrifice”).

It is through Sacrifice that we build our relationships with the Kindred, and through Sacrifice that we show them that we are invested in the relationship. By showing that we are invested and the giving of gifts through Sacrifice, we establish the relationship that encourages the Kindred to give us gifts in return.

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13. Discuss the relationship between sacrifice and blessing and how this is reflected in the Core Order of Ritual. (minimum 150 words)

“Do ut des” as described in Kirk Thomas’ book “Sacred Gifts” the concept of reciprocity is about giving so that others may give back (5). This concept of reciprocity is one of the key concepts that link the sacrifice and the blessing.  According to Thomas, sacrifice was the way that the ancients would communicate with the gods and build relationships with them.  This sacrifice is what allows reciprocity with the gods (Thomas 65-70).  Be giving what we can to the gods, we are establishing a relationship that allows for the *ghosti response of giving back. 

In an ADF ritual, we may or may not have a strong relationship with the kindred that are called.  With the giving of sacrifices, and the verification through the omen that the sacrifices are accepted, we are establishing the *ghosti relationship with the kindred.  By establishing this relationship, we are setting up the opportunity for the kindred to return the gifts through the granting of blessings.

Without setting up this relationship through the sacrifice, we would have to have a strong, previously established, relationship in order to expect that we would receive any blessings during the ritual.

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14. Discuss your understanding of the Omen. (minimum 100 words)

The Omen is the way for the Kindred to communicate more easily with us in Ritual. We have given them gifts and praise, and now is their chance to speak to us in return. In ADF, there are two different questions that are usually asked.  The first is “Have our offerings been accepted?” and the second is “What blessings are offered to us?” (Newberg, “COoR Tutorial: Step Ten. ..”)

For the first question, the answer is a positive or negative omen. If the response is negative, then either more offerings should be made to appease the Kindred or the steps for Blessing the Water should be avoided. If additional offerings are made, then it makes sense to take a new Omen after the offerings are made. Personally, I have not experienced many groups that ask this question. 

The second question that is often asked for the Omen, is to understand what blessings the Kindred have for us.  For this type of Omen, the results are interpreted as a message from the Kindred.  In the Protogrove of the Valley Oak, we pull three readings, one for each of the Kindred, and combine the interpretations into a single reading.

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15. Describe how ADF liturgy corresponds with your personal or group practice. (minimum 100 words)

I use ADF liturgy and the concept of fire and water in much of my daily practice. I use the framework that Ian Corrigan put together on his blog, and add in any additional work in the “working and meditation” part of the framework. I will sometimes include practices from other traditions, including other Druidic traditions, but more often than not, my personal rituals are framed in ADF liturgy. Even when I don’t use the ADF liturgy, the work that I do has many of the same steps. I still include the key steps of creating a sacred place, re-creating the cosmos, calling the Kindred (but not always all three groups), making offerings, doing a working, and closing down the space.

The way the ADF liturgy has been constructed has helped me understand how rituals are constructed and understand what is needed based on the ritual that I do. As I move forward in my studies, I find that I analyze pre-prepared rituals to understand how they were constructed and what each different part was supposed to accomplish. Then I see what parts makes sense to adapt or adopt in my own workings.

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Works Cited

Bell, Catherine M. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Kindle File.

Bonewits, Isaac. Neopagan Rites: a guide to creating public rituals that work. Woodbury, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 2007. Kindle File.

— . “Step by Step through A Druid Worship Ceremony.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

Brooks, Arnold. “The Goals of Group Ritual.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

Corrigan, Ian. “Core Ideas in Druid Theology.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N. p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

— . “Druidic Mystical Practice – Open Meditation.” Into the Mound. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb 2014.

— . “The Intentions of Drudic Ritual.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

— . “The Worlds and the Kindreds.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.

Dangler, Michael. “Nine Central Tenets of Druidic Ritual” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.

Demissy, Linda. “Sacred Space, an Exploration of the Triple Center.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014

“History of the Hill of Uisneach.” N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2015.

Newberg, Brandon.”COoR Tutorial: Step Eight: Key Offerings” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

— .”COoR Tutorial: Step Five: (Re)Creating the Cosmos” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

— .”COoR Tutorial: Step Six: Opening the Gate(s).” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

— .”COoR Tutorial: Step Ten: The Omen” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

— . “COoR Tutorial: Step Three: Honoring the Earth Mother.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014.

“The Druid’s Cosmos.” Dedicant Path Manual. Ár NDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship, Inc., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2015.

Thomas, Kirk S. Sacred Gifts: Reciprocity and the Gods. Tucson, AZ: ADF Publishing Inc., 2015. Print.

—  “The Nature of Sacrifice.” The Nature of Sacrifice. Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2015.

Serith, Ceisiwr. “[adf-liturgists] Outsiders offering.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

— . “Sacrifice, the Indo-Europeans, and ADF.” Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. N. p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2014.